Oil prices have crashed this year, with the current U.S. contract falling into negative territory, due to millions of barrels of supply around the globe hitting markets at a time when the coronavirus pandemic means people are not flying on planes or driving in cars.
With demand down 30% worldwide, that leaves buyers of oil few options other than to stick crude in storage, and Cushing is the primary U.S. locale for that. The tank farm has about 76 million barrels of working capacity, and coming into last week about 53 million barrels were being stored there, according to U.S. Energy Department figures.
The chances of finding unused space there now are not good. New tank leases at Cushing have ground to a halt, blocking anyone trying to buy up last-minute space, five trade sources said. Even if there is physical space, when there is no more leasing available, barrels can get rejected.
“The terminals have already contracted their storage 100%. There may be contracts coming up in the next few months that will either be renewed or put out to market,” said Ernie Barsamian, chief executive officer of The Tank Tiger, a terminal storage clearinghouse in Princeton, New Jersey.
That realization among traders and funds managers sparked a panic on Monday that caused the expiring May oil contract to crash to minus-$37.63 a barrel, the first time U.S. crude ended in negative territory in history.
“Firms have oil on pipelines on the way to Cushing and thought they had storage tied up and for some reason they didn’t,” said Phil Verleger, an oil economist and independent consultant.
Trade sources, citing Genscape data released on Monday, said that 61 million barrels of crude are now being kept in Cushing. That leaves about 15 million barrels of space left.
“We have been forecasting for some weeks that Cushing, Oklahoma would reach tank tops by mid-to-late May,” said John Coleman, principal analyst at Wood Mackenzie. “Based on current trajectories, (that) looks to likely to happen in the first half of May instead.”
Monday’s trading in May futures was in part a panicked move due to coming expiration, but June futures nearly repeated that trick on Tuesday, falling 43% to $11.57 a barrel. That is an indication that the extreme imbalance in supply and demand will not be alleviated by then – which means crude owners will not be able to store in Cushing then, either.
Several major oil companies, including Magellan Midstream Partners , Enterprise Products Partners , and Enbridge inc own tanks at the hub, which they lease out for companies to store their oil. Some traders sublease that space. Barsamian, who brokers these transactions, said all tanks were leased by mid-March, and he has not subleased any space since late in the month.
That came as a shock to the likes of hedge funds who had jumped into the oil contract, only to find they would not be able to store it anywhere if they still held the position on expiry, unleashing a flood of selling.
“I never been contacted by as many hedge funds as I did yesterday looking for storage. I had dozens of emails and phone calls from hedge funds,” said Barsamian. “They never really thought about the aspect of the physical delivery.”
Flows into Cushing accelerated in the last two weeks after Enterprise Products Partners started shipping on unused pipeline space from the U.S. Gulf Coast to Cushing.
Enterprise and Enbridge declined to comment, citing confidentiality concerns. A Magellan spokesperson said that the company has received significant interest in storage throughout its system, without specifically discussing Cushing.